Web 2.0, Opinion, Marketing & Communication

vendredi 22 juin 2007

Habermas : Il faut sauver la presse écrite de qualité

Lu ce papier de Jurgen Habermas, traduit en français par Le Monde du 25 Mai, qui plaide pour un effort public pour sauver la presse écrite de qualité. Brillant… et bien utile pour un titre qui se trouve chahuté par son actualité (non reconduction du mandat de Colombani, dettes abyssales…). Si Le Monde a publié ce papier, ce n’est sûrement pas seulement parce que c’est un journal étiqueté « intello » car ce que dit Habermas à propos du Süddeutsche Zeitung est presque parfaitement applicable pour Le Monde.


Alors, dans ce papier, Habermas expose l’importance d’une presse écrite de qualité pour la survie de la démocratie… et parle en creux de l’incapacité de supports comme les blogs de dynamiser et de nourrir la démocratie. Je dois avouer que bien que fanatique de médias numériques, son exposé est très convaincant d’autant que son propos trouve une excellente illustration dans la dernière élection présidentielle. Pour Habermas, la presse écrite remplie une fonction qu’elle est la seule à être capable d’assumer : celle de « média directeur » capable de produire une discussion publique en mettant en concurrence des « opinions publiques » divergentes. Par opposition, les médias comme internet n’offrent qu’une « démoscopie » de l’éventail des opinions. Une opposition entre une présentation « brute et inerte », incapable de donner pertinence et cohérence à l’ensemble des discours, et une approche dynamique et dialectique qui produit du sens.


C’est peut-être triste pour les aficionados du web 2.0 mais les errances de partisans idiots qui foncent pour manipuler wikipedia au soir du débat Sarko/Ségo ou de ceux qui font de même au sujet de la lettre de Guy Mocquet souligne l’incapacité du web 2.0 à produire une vrais dynamique de débat intelligible et de bonne foi (enfin, sans parler de Elkabbach). C’est toute l’imbécillité militante qui s’est le mieux illustrée avec son lot de mauvaise foi, de manipulations (de quelques brebis galeuses ?). Il y a bien sûr eu des apports au débat public, mais ils n’ont pu faire irruption dans la sphère publique que grâce à la mise en perspective journalistique.


Donc Habermas a raison… Sauf que des espaces de débat sont dotés de dispositifs d’arbitrage démocratique (comme wikipedia) et redressent les tirs par des mécanismes d’autorégulation corrective. Malheureusement, ces mécanismes correctifs n’interviennent qu’à posteriori, donc selon une autre temporalité que celle du débat. J’en conclut donc qu’internet deviendra un « média directeur » seulement le jour où l’implication des internautes sera plus forte. Le jour où la règle des 1% ne sera plus d’actualité et que les citoyen n’hésiterons plus à prendre leur clavier et à entrer dans le débat publique…

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